Monthly Archives: February 2016

I2C Communications between Raspberry Pi and Arduino – Part Three

Today’s goal is to send a string from the Arduino to the Raspberry Pi. The setup is the same as from day two.

After several attempts and stupid mistakes, I was finally able to get a “Hello World” message from the Arduino to the Raspberry Pi.

Here is the code for the Arduino

#include <Wire.h>
#include "DHT.h"

#define SLAVE_ADDRESS 0x04

#define PIN_DHT 4
#define PIN_PHOTORESISTOR A3
#define PIN_LED 1

#define DHTTYPE DHT11   // DHT 11
//#define DHTTYPE DHT22   // DHT 22  (AM2302), AM2321
//#define DHTTYPE DHT21   // DHT 21 (AM2301)

int humidity = 0;
int temperatureCelsius = 0;
int lightReading = 0;

int number = 0;

unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
const long interval = 1000;

bool flashLed = true;
bool respondWithText = false;
String responseText = "The Message";

// Initialize DHT sensor.
// Note that older versions of this library took an optional third parameter to
// tweak the timings for faster processors.  This parameter is no longer needed
// as the current DHT reading algorithm adjusts itself to work on faster procs.
DHT dht(PIN_DHT, DHTTYPE);

void setup() {
  pinMode(PIN_DHT, INPUT);
  pinMode(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR, INPUT);
  pinMode(PIN_LED, OUTPUT);

  digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);

  dht.begin();

  // initialize i2c as slave
  Wire.begin(SLAVE_ADDRESS);

  // define callbacks for i2c communication
  Wire.onReceive(On_WireReceive);
  Wire.onRequest(On_WireRequest);
}

void loop() {
  unsigned long currentMillis = millis();

  if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= interval) {
    previousMillis = currentMillis;

    if (flashLed) {
      digitalWrite(PIN_LED, HIGH);
    }
    ReadDHT();
    ReadLightLevel();
    if (flashLed) {
      digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
    }
  }
}

// callback for received data
void On_WireReceive(int byteCount) {

  while (Wire.available()) {
    number = Wire.read();
    respondWithText = false;

    switch (number) {
      case 1: // Temperature in Celsius
        number = temperatureCelsius;
        break;
      case 2: // Humidity
        number = humidity;
        break;
      case 3: // Light Level
        number = lightReading;
        break;
      case 4: // LED On
        digitalWrite(PIN_LED, HIGH);
        flashLed = false;
        break;
      case 5: // LED Off
        digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
        flashLed = false;
        break;
      case 6: // LED Flash on read
        digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
        flashLed = true;
        break;
      case 250: // Send Model Info
        respondWithText = true;
        responseText = "TeelSys Data and Light Sensor";
        break;
      case 251: // Send Version Info
        respondWithText = true;
        responseText = "version 0.0.3";
        break;
      case 254: // Send Hello World
        respondWithText = true;
        responseText = "Hello World";
        break;
      default:
        break;
    }
  }
}

// callback for sending data
void On_WireRequest() {
  if(respondWithText) {
    ProcessRequestString();
  }
  else {
    sendData();
  }
}

void ReadDHT() {
  humidity = 0;
  temperatureCelsius = 0;

  // Reading temperature or humidity takes about 250 milliseconds!
  // Sensor readings may also be up to 2 seconds 'old' (its a very slow sensor)
  humidity = dht.readHumidity();
  // Read temperature as Celsius (the default)
  temperatureCelsius = dht.readTemperature();
}

void ReadLightLevel() {
  int photocellReading = analogRead(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR);
  lightReading = ((float)photocellReading / 1023.0) * 100.0;
}

void sendData() {
  Wire.write(number);
}

void ProcessRequestString() {
  Wire.write(responseText.c_str());
}

Here is the code for the Raspberry Pi

#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <linux/i2c-dev.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>

// The PiWeather board i2c address
#define ADDRESS 0x04

// The I2C bus: This is for V2 pi's. For V1 Model B you need i2c-0
static const char *devName = "/dev/i2c-0";

int main(int argc, char** argv) {

  if (argc == 1) {
    printf("Supply one or more commands to send to the Arduino\n");
    exit(1);
  }

  printf("I2C: Connecting\n");
  int file;

  if ((file = open(devName, O_RDWR)) < 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to access %d\n", devName);
    exit(1);
  }

  printf("I2C: acquiring buss to 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);

  if (ioctl(file, I2C_SLAVE, ADDRESS) < 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to acquire bus access/talk to slave 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);
    exit(1);
  }

  int arg;

  for (arg = 1; arg < argc; arg++) {
    int val;
    unsigned char cmd[16];

    if (0 == sscanf(argv[arg], "%d", &val)) {
      fprintf(stderr, "Invalid parameter %d \"%s\"\n", arg, argv[arg]);
      exit(1);
    }

    printf("Sending %d\n", val);

    cmd[0] = val;
    if (write(file, cmd, 1) == 1) {

      // As we are not talking to direct hardware but a microcontroller we
      // need to wait a short while so that it can respond.
      //
      // 1ms seems to be enough but it depends on what workload it has
      usleep(10000);
      
      if(val<250) {	// Receiving int
	      char buf[1];
	      if (read(file, buf, 1) == 1) {
		    int temp = (int) buf[0];
		
		    printf("Received %d\n", temp);
		      }
		  }
      else {	// Receiving String
	      char buf[256];
	      int charCount=0;
	      
	      for(charCount=0; charCount<256; charCount++) {
	      	buf[charCount]=89;
	      }
	      
				if(read(file, buf, 256) == 256) {
					for(charCount=0; charCount<256; charCount++) {
	    			int temp = (int) buf[charCount];
	
	    			printf("%d:\tReceived %d\t%c\n", charCount, temp, temp);
	    		}
		    }
      }
		}
		
    // Now wait else you could crash the arduino by sending requests too fast
    usleep(10000);
  }

  close(file);
  return (EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

Compile the code
gcc testi2c03.c -o testi2c03
Config_I2C_103

Run the code
./testi2c03 254
Config_I2C_104
Config_I2C_105

We can see that once the string ends, the data on the I2C buss is 255. Let’s tweak the code on the Raspberry Pi to stop once we receive 255.

#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <linux/i2c-dev.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>

// The PiWeather board i2c address
#define ADDRESS 0x04

// The I2C bus: This is for V2 pi's. For V1 Model B you need i2c-0
static const char *devName = "/dev/i2c-0";

int main(int argc, char** argv) {

  if (argc == 1) {
    printf("Supply one or more commands to send to the Arduino\n");
    exit(1);
  }

  printf("I2C: Connecting\n");
  int file;

  if ((file = open(devName, O_RDWR)) < 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to access %d\n", devName);
    exit(1);
  }

  printf("I2C: acquiring buss to 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);

  if (ioctl(file, I2C_SLAVE, ADDRESS) < 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to acquire bus access/talk to slave 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);
    exit(1);
  }

  int arg;

  for (arg = 1; arg < argc; arg++) {
    int val;
    unsigned char cmd[16];

    if (0 == sscanf(argv[arg], "%d", &val)) {
      fprintf(stderr, "Invalid parameter %d \"%s\"\n", arg, argv[arg]);
      exit(1);
    }

    printf("Sending %d\n", val);

    cmd[0] = val;
    if (write(file, cmd, 1) == 1) {

      // As we are not talking to direct hardware but a microcontroller we
      // need to wait a short while so that it can respond.
      //
      // 1ms seems to be enough but it depends on what workload it has
      usleep(10000);
      
      if(val<250) {	// Receiving int
	      char buf[1];
	      if (read(file, buf, 1) == 1) {
		    int temp = (int) buf[0];
		
		    printf("Received %d\n", temp);
		      }
		  }
      else {	// Receiving String
	      char buf[256];
	      int charCount=0;
	      
	      for(charCount=0; charCount<256; charCount++) {
	      	buf[charCount]=89;
	      }
	      
				if(read(file, buf, 256) == 256) {
					for(charCount=0; charCount<256; charCount++) {
	    			int temp = (int) buf[charCount];
	    			
	    			if(temp==255) {
	    				break;
	    			}
	
	    			printf("%d:\tReceived %d\t%c\n", charCount, temp, temp);
	    		}
		    }
      }
		}
		
    // Now wait else you could crash the arduino by sending requests too fast
    usleep(10000);
  }

  close(file);
  return (EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

Compile the code
gcc testi2c03b.c -o testi2c03b

Then run the application
./testi2c03b 254
Config_I2C_107

We can see that the output is now cleaner.

Let’s do even better and print the string as a string instead of a list of characters.

#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <linux/i2c-dev.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>

// The PiWeather board i2c address
#define ADDRESS 0x04

// The I2C bus: This is for V2 pi's. For V1 Model B you need i2c-0
static const char *devName = "/dev/i2c-0";

int main(int argc, char** argv) {

  if (argc == 1) {
    printf("Supply one or more commands to send to the Arduino\n");
    exit(1);
  }

  printf("I2C: Connecting\n");
  int file;

  if ((file = open(devName, O_RDWR)) < 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to access %d\n", devName);
    exit(1);
  }

  printf("I2C: acquiring buss to 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);

  if (ioctl(file, I2C_SLAVE, ADDRESS) < 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to acquire bus access/talk to slave 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);
    exit(1);
  }

  int arg;

  for (arg = 1; arg < argc; arg++) {
    int val;
    unsigned char cmd[16];

    if (0 == sscanf(argv[arg], "%d", &val)) {
      fprintf(stderr, "Invalid parameter %d \"%s\"\n", arg, argv[arg]);
      exit(1);
    }

    printf("Sending %d\n", val);

    cmd[0] = val;
    if (write(file, cmd, 1) == 1) {

      // As we are not talking to direct hardware but a microcontroller we
      // need to wait a short while so that it can respond.
      //
      // 1ms seems to be enough but it depends on what workload it has
      usleep(10000);
      
      if(val<250) {	// Receiving int
	      char buf[1];
	      if (read(file, buf, 1) == 1) {
		    int temp = (int) buf[0];
		
		    printf("Received %d\n", temp);
		      }
		  }
      else {	// Receiving String
	      char buf[256];
	      int charCount=0;
	      char receivedText[256];
	      
	      for(charCount=0; charCount<256; charCount++) {
	      	receivedText[charCount]=0;
	      }
	      
				if(read(file, buf, 256) == 256) {
					for(charCount=0; charCount<256; charCount++) {
	    			int temp = (int) buf[charCount];
	    			
	    			if(temp==255) {
	    				break;
	    			}
	    			
	    			receivedText[charCount] = buf[charCount];
	
	    			//printf("%d:\tReceived %d\t%c\n", charCount, temp, temp);
	    		}
	    		printf("Received %s\n", receivedText);
		    }
      }
		}
		
    // Now wait else you could crash the arduino by sending requests too fast
    usleep(10000);
  }

  close(file);
  return (EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

Compile the code
gcc testi2c03c.c -o testi2c03c

Then run the application
./testi2c03c 1 2 3 254 250 251
Config_I2C_108

Yes, I included additional arguments this time. The code was setup to handle this which is really nice. This allows us to teak the code if we like to print out what the values actually are and get some additional information. So let’s create a new application which will do exactly that but will not take in any arguments. I am also going to add a few other things such as detecting if we are using a Raspberry Pi Rev 1 or Rev 2 as well as scanning the I2C Bus.

I was doing some searching on valid I2C addresses and found a great reference article from Total  Phase at 7-bit, 8-bit, and 10-bit I2C Slave Addressing. The article provides a diagram showing the valid range of 7-bit I2C addresses.

slave-address-fig3

From this diagram, we can see that the address used in the examples is a reserved address. I will change the address in the Arduino code so that it is in the valid address range.

Here is a modified version of the code which finds all connected I2C devices. Determines which ones are the sensors that we are interested in, and reads values from each one. This will be a great program for making certain that the design works and all of the sensors are working.

Arduino Code

#include <Wire.h>
#include "DHT.h"

#define SLAVE_ADDRESS 0x22

#define PIN_DHT 4
#define PIN_PHOTORESISTOR A3
#define PIN_LED 1

#define DHTTYPE DHT11   // DHT 11
//#define DHTTYPE DHT22   // DHT 22  (AM2302), AM2321
//#define DHTTYPE DHT21   // DHT 21 (AM2301)

int humidity = 0;
int temperatureCelsius = 0;
int lightReading = 0;

int number = 0;

unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
const long interval = 1000;

bool flashLed = true;
bool respondWithText = false;
String responseText = "The Message";

// Initialize DHT sensor.
// Note that older versions of this library took an optional third parameter to
// tweak the timings for faster processors.  This parameter is no longer needed
// as the current DHT reading algorithm adjusts itself to work on faster procs.
DHT dht(PIN_DHT, DHTTYPE);

void setup() {
  pinMode(PIN_DHT, INPUT);
  pinMode(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR, INPUT);
  pinMode(PIN_LED, OUTPUT);

  digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);

  dht.begin();

  // initialize i2c as slave
  Wire.begin(SLAVE_ADDRESS);

  // define callbacks for i2c communication
  Wire.onReceive(On_WireReceive);
  Wire.onRequest(On_WireRequest);
}

void loop() {
  unsigned long currentMillis = millis();

  if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= interval) {
    previousMillis = currentMillis;

    if (flashLed) {
      digitalWrite(PIN_LED, HIGH);
    }
    ReadDHT();
    ReadLightLevel();
    if (flashLed) {
      digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
    }
  }
}

// callback for received data
void On_WireReceive(int byteCount) {

  while (Wire.available()) {
    number = Wire.read();
    respondWithText = false;

    switch (number) {
      case 1: // Temperature in Celsius
        number = temperatureCelsius;
        break;
      case 2: // Humidity
        number = humidity;
        break;
      case 3: // Light Level
        number = lightReading;
        break;
      case 4: // LED On
        digitalWrite(PIN_LED, HIGH);
        flashLed = false;
        break;
      case 5: // LED Off
        digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
        flashLed = false;
        break;
      case 6: // LED Flash on read
        digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
        flashLed = true;
        break;
      case 250: // Send Model Info
        respondWithText = true;
        responseText = "TeelSys Data and Light Sensor";
        break;
      case 251: // Send Version Info
        respondWithText = true;
        responseText = "version 0.0.3";
        break;
      case 254: // Send Hello World
        respondWithText = true;
        responseText = "Hello World";
        break;
      default:
        break;
    }
  }
}

// callback for sending data
void On_WireRequest() {
  if(respondWithText) {
    ProcessRequestString();
  }
  else {
    sendData();
  }
}

void ReadDHT() {
  humidity = 0;
  temperatureCelsius = 0;

  // Reading temperature or humidity takes about 250 milliseconds!
  // Sensor readings may also be up to 2 seconds 'old' (its a very slow sensor)
  humidity = dht.readHumidity();
  // Read temperature as Celsius (the default)
  temperatureCelsius = dht.readTemperature();
}

void ReadLightLevel() {
  int photocellReading = analogRead(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR);
  lightReading = ((float)photocellReading / 1023.0) * 100.0;
}

void sendData() {
  Wire.write(number);
}

void ProcessRequestString() {
  Wire.write(responseText.c_str());
}

Raspberry Pi Code

#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <linux/i2c-dev.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <math.h>

#define CMD_GET_TEMPERATURE 1
#define CMD_GET_HUMIDITY 2
#define CMD_SET_LIGHT 3
#define CMD_SET_LED_ON 4
#define CMD_SET_LED_OFF 5
#define CMD_SET_LED_FLASH 6
#define CMD_GET_MODEL 250
#define CMD_GET_VERSION 251
#define CMD_GET_HELLO_WORLD 254

// The I2C bus: This is for V2 pi's. For V1 Model B you need i2c-0
char *devName = "/dev/i2c-0";
int file;
int devices[128];
int sensorDevices[128];

float computeHeatIndex(float temperature, float percentHumidity, int isFahrenheit);
float convertCtoF(float c);
float convertFtoC(float f);
void displayConnectedI2cDevices();
void findAllI2cDevices();
void findI2cBus();
void findSensors();
int receiveInt();
void receiveString(char *str, int bufSize);
int sendCommand(int deviceAddress, int cmdCode);

int main(int argc, char** argv) {
	// Look for the I2C bus device

  printf("I2C: Connecting\n");
	findI2cBus();
  
  // Find Devices
  findAllI2cDevices();
  
  // Display devices found (Simlar to i2cdetect -y 0)
  displayConnectedI2cDevices();
  
  // Find the sensors for this project
  findSensors();
  
  printf("\n");
  
  // Read information from each sensor
  int deviceIdx = 0;
  
  while(sensorDevices[deviceIdx] > 0) {
  	int bufSize=256;
  	char buf[bufSize];
  	// int bufSize = sizeof(buf)/sizeof(buf[0]);
  	int val=0;
  	
  	/*
  		Model
  		Version
  		Temperature
  		Humidity
  		Light Level
  	*/
  	float degreesC=0.0;
  	float degreesF=0.0;
  	float humidity=0.0;
  	float lightLevel=0.0;
  	float heatIndexC=0.0;
  	float heatIndexF=0.0;
  	char model[bufSize];
  	char version[bufSize];
  	
  	// Get the values
  	sendCommand(sensorDevices[deviceIdx], CMD_SET_LED_ON);
  	if(sendCommand(sensorDevices[deviceIdx], CMD_GET_MODEL)==1) {
  		receiveString(model, bufSize);
  	}
  	if(sendCommand(sensorDevices[deviceIdx], CMD_GET_VERSION)==1) {
  		receiveString(version, bufSize);
  	}
  	if(sendCommand(sensorDevices[deviceIdx], CMD_GET_TEMPERATURE)==1) {
  		val=receiveInt();
  		degreesC = (float)val;
  	}
  	if(sendCommand(sensorDevices[deviceIdx], CMD_GET_HUMIDITY)==1) {
  		val=receiveInt();
  		humidity = (float)val;
  	}
  	if(sendCommand(sensorDevices[deviceIdx], CMD_SET_LIGHT)==1) {
  		val=receiveInt();
  		lightLevel = (float)val;
  	}
  	sendCommand(sensorDevices[deviceIdx], CMD_SET_LED_OFF);
  	
  	// Calculate Values
  	degreesF=convertCtoF(degreesC);
  	heatIndexC=computeHeatIndex(degreesC, humidity, 0);
  	heatIndexF=computeHeatIndex(degreesF, humidity, 1);
  	
  	// Display values
  	printf("Sensor Address: 0x%02x\n", sensorDevices[deviceIdx]);
  	printf("Model: %s\n", model);
  	printf("Version: %s\n", version);
		printf("Temperature: %3.2f C\n", degreesC);
		printf("Temperature: %3.2f F\n", degreesF);
  	printf("Humidity: %3.2f%% RH\n", humidity);
		printf("Heat Index: %3.2f C\n", heatIndexC);
		printf("Heat Index: %3.2f F\n", heatIndexF);
  	printf("Light Level: %3.2f%%\n", lightLevel);
  	printf("\n");
  	
  	deviceIdx++;
  }
  
  close(file);
  return (EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

float computeHeatIndex(float temperature, float percentHumidity, int isFahrenheit) {
  // Using both Rothfusz and Steadman's equations
  // http://www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/html/heatindex_equation.shtml
  float hi;

  if (isFahrenheit==0)
    temperature = convertCtoF(temperature);

  hi = 0.5 * (temperature + 61.0 + ((temperature - 68.0) * 1.2) + (percentHumidity * 0.094));

  if (hi > 79) {
    hi = -42.379 +
             2.04901523 * temperature +
            10.14333127 * percentHumidity +
            -0.22475541 * temperature*percentHumidity +
            -0.00683783 * pow(temperature, 2) +
            -0.05481717 * pow(percentHumidity, 2) +
             0.00122874 * pow(temperature, 2) * percentHumidity +
             0.00085282 * temperature*pow(percentHumidity, 2) +
            -0.00000199 * pow(temperature, 2) * pow(percentHumidity, 2);

    if((percentHumidity < 13) && (temperature >= 80.0) && (temperature <= 112.0))
      hi -= ((13.0 - percentHumidity) * 0.25) * sqrt((17.0 - abs(temperature - 95.0)) * 0.05882);

    else if((percentHumidity > 85.0) && (temperature >= 80.0) && (temperature <= 87.0))
      hi += ((percentHumidity - 85.0) * 0.1) * ((87.0 - temperature) * 0.2);
  }

  return isFahrenheit ? hi : convertFtoC(hi);
}

float convertCtoF(float c) {
  return c * (9.0/5.0) + 32;
}

float convertFtoC(float f) {
  return (f - 32) * (5.0/9.0);
}

void displayConnectedI2cDevices() {
	int idx=0;
	printf("     0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  a  b  c  d  e  f");
	for(idx=0; idx<=0x7F; idx++) {
		if(idx%16==0) {
			printf("\n%d0:",idx/16);
		}
		if(idx>0x07 && idx<0x78) {
			if(devices[idx]>0) {
				if(devices[idx]==-9) {
					printf(" UU");
				}
				else {
					printf(" %02x", idx);
				}
			}
			else {
				printf(" --");
			}
		}
		else {
				printf("   ");
		}
  }
  printf("\n");
}

void findAllI2cDevices() {
	int idx=0;
  for(idx=0; idx<=0x7F; idx++) {
  	int device=0;
  	
  	if(idx>0x07 && idx<0x78) {
	  	if (ioctl(file, I2C_SLAVE, idx) < 0) {
	  		if(errno == EBUSY) {
	  			device = -9;
	  		}
	  		else {
		  		device = -1;
		  	}
	  	}
	  	else {
	  		char buf[1];
	  		if(read(file, buf, 1) == 1 && buf[0] >= 0) {
	  			device = idx;
	  		}
	  	}
  	}
  	
  	devices[idx] = device;
  }
}

void findI2cBus() {
	if ((file = open(devName, O_RDWR)) < 0) {
  	devName = "/dev/i2c-1";
  	if ((file = open(devName, O_RDWR)) < 0) {
	    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to access %d\n", devName);
	    exit(1);
	  }
  }
  
  printf("Found I2C bus at %s\n", devName);
}

void findSensors() {
	char *sensorType="TeelSys Data and Light Sensor";
	char buf[256];
	int idx=0;
	int sensorIdx=0;
	// sensorDevices
	// devices
	
	// Clear the sensorDevices array
	for(idx=0; idx<128; idx++) {
		sensorDevices[idx] = 0;
	}
	
  for(idx=0x08; idx<=0x78; idx++) {
  	int device=0;
  	
  	if(devices[idx]==idx) {
  		if(sendCommand(0x22, CMD_GET_MODEL)==1) {
  			int bufSize = sizeof(buf)/sizeof(buf[0]);
  			receiveString(buf, bufSize);
  			if(strlen(sensorType)==strlen(buf) && strcmp(sensorType, buf)==0) {
  				sensorDevices[sensorIdx]=devices[idx];
  				sensorIdx++;
  				printf("Found Sensor at: 0x%02x\n", devices[idx]);
  			}
  		}
  	}
  }
}

void receiveString(char *buf, int bufSize) {
  int charCount=0;
  
	if(read(file, buf, bufSize) == bufSize) {
		for(charCount=0; charCount<bufSize; charCount++) {
			int temp = (int) buf[charCount];
			
			if(temp==255) {
				buf[charCount]=0;
			}
		}
  }
}

int receiveInt() {
  char buf[1];
  int retVal=0;
  
  if (read(file, buf, 1) == 1) {
  	retVal=(int)buf[0];
  }
  
  return retVal;
}

int sendCommand(int deviceAddress, int cmdCode) {
	int retVal = 0;
	unsigned char cmd[16];
	cmd[0] = cmdCode;
	
	if (ioctl(file, I2C_SLAVE, deviceAddress) < 0) {
    fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to acquire bus access/talk to slave 0x%x\n", deviceAddress);
    exit(1);
  }
  
  if (write(file, cmd, 1) == 1) {
  	// As we are not talking to direct hardware but a microcontroller we
    // need to wait a short while so that it can respond.
    //
    // 1ms seems to be enough but it depends on what workload it has
    usleep(10000);
    retVal = 1;
  }
  
  return retVal;
}

 

Compiling the Raspberry Pi code is a bit different as we need to link the math library. In order to do this, we need to add -lm to the command line.

gcc testi2c03d.c -o testi2c03d -lm

Config_I2C_110

Here is the results of running the application.
Config_I2C_112

 

The passing of a string was successful however there are several standards which may be better suited to the goal that I have in mind. One worth further consideration is the System Management Bus (SMBus). For the moment, I am leaving the code as is since the information that I need to send may be sent as simple integer responses. A future enhancement will be to get a better messaging system in place.

The next step is to replace the Arduino with a ATTiny85 and get it all working.

I2C Communications between Raspberry Pi and Arduino – Part Two

The goal of the day is to get the Raspberry Pi and Arduino talking to each other over I2C.

I followed a few examples provided on the internet and was able to get the two to talk to each other. Just to be clear, the Raspberry Pi will be the I2C master and the Arduino will be the slave. One of the nice advantages to this configuration is that it is not necessary to do any voltage level shifting between the two devices. If you are not aware, the Raspberry Pi GPIO is at 3.3V and the Arduino is at 5V. If the Arduino were to supply 5V to any of the Raspberry Pi’s GPIO pins, the Raspberry Pi will be toast.

I followed the tutorial at http://blog.retep.org/2014/02/15/connecting-an-arduino-to-a-raspberry-pi-using-i2c/. Below are some of the high level steps.

  1. Download the latest Raspbian image from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/raspbian/
  2. Unzip the file and write the image to the SD Card using Win32DiskImager from https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/
  3. Once the Raspberry Pi boots, open a terminal window and run raspi-config to enable I2C Support
    sudo raspiconfig
    Config_I2C_000
  4. Select “Advanced Options” from the menu
    Config_I2C_001
  5. Select “I2C” from the Advanced Options menu
    Config_I2C_002
    Select “Yes”
    Config_I2C_003
    Select “OK”
    Config_I2C_004
    Select “Yes”
    Config_I2C_005
    Select “OK”
    Config_I2C_006
    ”Select “Finish”
    Config_I2C_007
  6. Install i2c-tools
    sudo apt-get update
    Config_I2C_011
    sudo apt-get install i2c-tools
    Config_I2C_012
  7. Run i2cdetect to make certain that i2c-tools installed properly
    i2cdetect –y 0
    or
    i2cdetect –y 1
    Config_I2C_013
    If all worked well, you will see the following output
    Config_I2C_014
    If there are devices connected to the I2C pins, you will see the devices listed as in this example.
    Config_I2C_015
  8. Wire up the Arduino and Raspberry Pi
    Raspberry PI        Arduino
    GPIO 0 (SDA)    <–>    Pin 4 (SDA)
    GPIO 1 (SCL)    <–>    Pin 5 (SCL)
    Ground    <–>    Ground
    Step002_bb
    Step002_schem
  9. Upload Code to the Arduino
    #include <Wire.h>
    #include "DHT.h"
    
    #define SLAVE_ADDRESS 0x04
    
    #define PIN_DHT 4
    #define PIN_PHOTORESISTOR A3
    #define PIN_LED 1
    
    #define DHTTYPE DHT11   // DHT 11
    //#define DHTTYPE DHT22   // DHT 22  (AM2302), AM2321
    //#define DHTTYPE DHT21   // DHT 21 (AM2301)
    
    int humidity = 0;
    int temperatureCelsius = 0;
    int lightReading = 0;
    
    int number = 0;
    
    unsigned long previousMillis = 0;
    const long interval = 1000;
    
    bool flashLed = true;
    
    // Initialize DHT sensor.
    // Note that older versions of this library took an optional third parameter to
    // tweak the timings for faster processors.  This parameter is no longer needed
    // as the current DHT reading algorithm adjusts itself to work on faster procs.
    DHT dht(PIN_DHT, DHTTYPE);
    
    void setup() {
      pinMode(PIN_DHT, INPUT);
      pinMode(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR, INPUT);
      pinMode(PIN_LED, OUTPUT);
    
      digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
    
      dht.begin();
    
      // initialize i2c as slave
      Wire.begin(SLAVE_ADDRESS);
    
      // define callbacks for i2c communication
      Wire.onReceive(receiveData);
      Wire.onRequest(sendData);
    }
    
    void loop() {
      unsigned long currentMillis = millis();
    
      if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= interval) {
        previousMillis = currentMillis;
    
        if (flashLed) {
          digitalWrite(PIN_LED, HIGH);
        }
        ReadDHT();
        ReadLightLevel();
        if (flashLed) {
          digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
        }
      }
    }
    
    // callback for received data
    void receiveData(int byteCount) {
    
      while (Wire.available()) {
        number = Wire.read();
    
        switch (number) {
          case 1: // Temperature in Celsius
            number = temperatureCelsius;
            break;
          case 2: // Humidity
            number = humidity;
            break;
          case 3: // Light Level
            number = lightReading;
            break;
          case 4: // LED On
            digitalWrite(PIN_LED, HIGH);
            flashLed = false;
            break;
          case 5: // LED Off
            digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
            flashLed = false;
            break;
          case 6: // LED Flash on read
            digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
            flashLed = true;
            break;
          default:
            break;
        }
      }
    }
    
    // callback for sending data
    void sendData() {
      Wire.write(number);
    }
    
    void ReadDHT() {
      humidity = 0;
      temperatureCelsius = 0;
    
      // Reading temperature or humidity takes about 250 milliseconds!
      // Sensor readings may also be up to 2 seconds 'old' (its a very slow sensor)
      humidity = dht.readHumidity();
      // Read temperature as Celsius (the default)
      temperatureCelsius = dht.readTemperature();
    }
    
    void ReadLightLevel() {
      int photocellReading = analogRead(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR);
      lightReading = ((float)photocellReading / 1023.0) * 100.0;
    }
    
  10. Write the application on the Raspberry Pi
    nano testi2c02.c
    Config_I2C_020
  11. Type of copy paste the following code
    #include <string.h>
    #include <unistd.h>
    #include <errno.h>
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <linux/i2c-dev.h>
    #include <sys/ioctl.h>
    #include <fcntl.h>
    #include <unistd.h>
    
    // The PiWeather board i2c address
    #define ADDRESS 0x04
    
    // The I2C bus: This is for V2 pi's. For V1 Model B you need i2c-0
    static const char *devName = "/dev/i2c-0";
    
    int main(int argc, char** argv) {
    
      if (argc == 1) {
        printf("Supply one or more commands to send to the Arduino\n");
        exit(1);
      }
    
      printf("I2C: Connecting\n");
      int file;
    
      if ((file = open(devName, O_RDWR)) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to access %d\n", devName);
        exit(1);
      }
    
      printf("I2C: acquiring buss to 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);
    
      if (ioctl(file, I2C_SLAVE, ADDRESS) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "I2C: Failed to acquire bus access/talk to slave 0x%x\n", ADDRESS);
        exit(1);
      }
    
      int arg;
    
      for (arg = 1; arg < argc; arg++) {
        int val;
        unsigned char cmd[16];
    
        if (0 == sscanf(argv[arg], "%d", &val)) {
          fprintf(stderr, "Invalid parameter %d \"%s\"\n", arg, argv[arg]);
          exit(1);
        }
    
        printf("Sending %d\n", val);
    
        cmd[0] = val;
        if (write(file, cmd, 1) == 1) {
    
          // As we are not talking to direct hardware but a microcontroller we
          // need to wait a short while so that it can respond.
          //
          // 1ms seems to be enough but it depends on what workload it has
          usleep(10000);
    
          char buf[1];
          if (read(file, buf, 1) == 1) {
        int temp = (int) buf[0];
    
        printf("Received %d\n", temp);
          }
        }
    
        // Now wait else you could crash the arduino by sending requests too fast
        usleep(10000);
      }
    
      close(file);
      return (EXIT_SUCCESS);
    }
  12. Save the file by pressing <Ctrl> + o

    Config_I2C_022
    Config_I2C_023
  13. Exit the editor by pressing <Ctrl> + x
    Config_I2C_024
  14. Compile the application
    gcc testi2c02.c -o testi2c02
    Config_I2C_025
    If you do see errors, go back and edit the file to correct them.
    Config_I2C_025
    Once the changes are made, recompile and if you do not see any error messages, you are good to go.
    Config_I2C_026
  15. Run the application
    ./testi2c02 1 {Gets the temperature in Celsius}
    Config_I2C_030
    ./testi2c02 2 {Gets the relative humidity in percent}
    Config_I2C_031

    ./testi2c02 3 {Gets the light level}
    Config_I2C_032

    ./testi2c02 4 {Turns the LED On}
    Config_I2C_033

    ./testi2c02 5 {Turns the LED Off}
    Config_I2C_034

    ./testi2c02 6 {Flashes the LED when reading sensors. This is the default behavior of the LED}
    Config_I2C_035

    ./testi2c02 7 {Echos the number 7. This may be repeated with any other number up to 255}
    Config_I2C_036

    Config_I2C_037

That’s all for the day. Next I plan to try to send strings and develop a format for messages.

I2C Communications between Raspberry Pi and Arduino – Part One

My daughter has a science project for school on bread mold growth. She will need to monitor the temperature, humidity, and light level of 3 separate environments. Being the geeky dad that I am, I decided to make her some data loggers to monitor each environment. I would also like to take this further by connecting to an online IoT site such as adafruit.io to store and graph the data. There are a few options available such as using an Arduino with a Wi-Fi shield to connect to the site and monitor the environment but that is not an elegant solution. What I have opted to do is to use a Raspberry Pi instead and use I2C to communicate to the sensors using ATTiny85 microcontrollers. One of the reasons for this choice was that she will need to monitor the growth with 10 to 30 slices of bread for each environment. With that many slices in one batch,  there could be a considerable variation throughout the area containing the bread so more than one data logger/sensor cluster should be used. I2C is the perfect solution as you may have up to 127 devices connected with just 3 wires.

Use an Arduino Uno R3 to get information from the sensors and verify that the code works correctly.

Step001_bb

Step001_schem

Arduino Code

#include "DHT.h"

#define PIN_DHT 4
#define PIN_PHOTORESISTOR A3
#define PIN_LED 1

#define debugCode 1

#define DHTTYPE DHT11 // DHT 11
//#define DHTTYPE DHT22 // DHT 22 (AM2302), AM2321
//#define DHTTYPE DHT21 // DHT 21 (AM2301)




float humidity = 0;
float temperatureCelsius = 0;
float temperatureFahrenheit = 0;
float heatIndexCelsius = 0;
float heatIndexFahrenheit = 0;
float lightLevelPercent = 0;

int photocellReading = 0;


// Initialize DHT sensor.
// Note that older versions of this library took an optional third parameter to
// tweak the timings for faster processors. This parameter is no longer needed
// as the current DHT reading algorithm adjusts itself to work on faster procs.
DHT dht(PIN_DHT, DHTTYPE);

void setup() {
 pinMode(PIN_DHT, INPUT);
 pinMode(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR, INPUT);
 pinMode(PIN_LED, OUTPUT);

 digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);

 if (debugCode) {
 Serial.begin(9600);
 while (!Serial) {
 ; // wait for serial port to connect. Needed for native USB
 }
 Serial.println("DHTxx test!");
 }
 dht.begin();
}

void loop() {
 // Wait a few seconds between measurements.
 delay(2000);
 digitalWrite(PIN_LED, HIGH);
 ReadDHT();
 ReadLightLevel();
 if (debugCode) {
 PrintDebug();
 }
 digitalWrite(PIN_LED, LOW);
}

void ReadDHT() {
 humidity = 0;
 temperatureCelsius = 0;
 temperatureFahrenheit = 0;
 heatIndexCelsius = 0;
 heatIndexFahrenheit = 0;

 // Reading temperature or humidity takes about 250 milliseconds!
 // Sensor readings may also be up to 2 seconds 'old' (its a very slow sensor)
 humidity = dht.readHumidity();
 // Read temperature as Celsius (the default)
 temperatureCelsius = dht.readTemperature();
 // Read temperature as Fahrenheit (isFahrenheit = true)
 temperatureFahrenheit = dht.readTemperature(true);

 // Check if any reads failed and exit early (to try again).
 if (isnan(humidity) || isnan(temperatureCelsius) || isnan(temperatureFahrenheit)) {
 Serial.println("Failed to read from DHT sensor!");
 return;
 }

 // Compute heat index in Fahrenheit (the default)
 heatIndexFahrenheit = dht.computeHeatIndex(temperatureFahrenheit, humidity);
 // Compute heat index in Celsius (isFahreheit = false)
 heatIndexCelsius = dht.computeHeatIndex(temperatureCelsius, humidity, false);
}

void ReadLightLevel() {
 photocellReading = analogRead(PIN_PHOTORESISTOR);
 lightLevelPercent = ((float)photocellReading / 1023.0) * 100.0;
}

void PrintDebug() {
 Serial.print("Humidity: ");
 Serial.print(humidity);
 Serial.print(" %\t");
 Serial.print("Temperature: ");
 Serial.print(temperatureCelsius);
 Serial.print(" *C ");
 Serial.print(temperatureFahrenheit);
 Serial.print(" *F\t");
 Serial.print("Heat index: ");
 Serial.print(heatIndexCelsius);
 Serial.print(" *C ");
 Serial.print(heatIndexFahrenheit);
 Serial.print(" *F\t");
 Serial.print("Light Level: ");
 Serial.print(photocellReading); // the raw analog reading
 Serial.print("\t");
 Serial.print(lightLevelPercent); // the raw analog reading
 Serial.println(" %");
}

Output

DHTxx test!
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 198	19.35 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 183	17.89 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 182	17.79 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 182	17.79 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 193	18.87 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 194	18.96 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 188	18.38 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 181	17.69 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 178	17.40 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 183	17.89 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 198	19.35 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 189	18.48 %
Humidity: 34.00 %	Temperature: 21.00 *C 69.80 *F	Heat index: 20.04 *C 68.08 *F	Light Level: 187	18.28 %

 

 

Next Step -> Add Raspberry Pi and I2C Communication